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DATA & ANALYSIS
  • FOREST ECONOMICS AND RESOURCE ANALYSIS: WOOD TECHNOLOGY AND UTILIZATION

    Wood-based industries are extremely important to the Texas economy. These industries create thousands of jobs and generate billions of dollars in economic impact. Long-term value can be increased through the wise, efficient and sustainable use of wood and the effective marketing of Texas forest resources.

    While Texas A&M Forest Service does not conduct formal research on wood products, our agency is actively engaged in identifying and promoting innovation and new technologies in support of ongoing and new forest-based economic development activities. Staff provide up-to-date information and assistance to Texas landowners, manufacturers, distributors and the public on topics related to the use of wood and the manufacturing and marketing of wood products.

    Directory of Forest Products Industries in Texas

    The Directory of Forest Products Industries in Texas is now available online through an interactive application on TexasForestInfo.com. This application enables users to view primary (facilities that process logs) and secondary (facilities that process lumber, plywood into other products) manufacturing facilities using both spatial and text searches. Results are displayed on a map and can be exported to PDF or spreadsheet files. 


     + BTU of Woody Biomass

    When biomass is used as fuel, the usable heat energy obtained is dependent on a property called heat of combustion. Heat of combustion is the amount of heat that results from the complete combustion of the material. Values are commonly expressed in British thermal units per oven dry pound (Btu/OD lb.) of material. Table 1 shows the heat of combustion values for southern yellow pine, mesquite, Chinese tallow and juniper. Table 2 lists the heat of combustion values for 22 hardwood species commonly found in Texas.


    Table 1. Heat of combustion (Btu/OD lb.) of pine1, mesquite2, Chinese tallow3 and juniper4.

    Species

    Tissue Type

    Average

    Range

     

     

     

     

    Southern Yellow Pine

     

     

    Mesquite (Prosopis sp.)

    Wood

    Bark

     

    Heartwood

    8600

    8900

     

    8657

     

     

     

    8469-9079

     

    Sapwood

    8021

    7907-8235

     

    Bark

    7836

    7043-8176

     

    Stem and leaves

    8123

    7846-8222

     

    Chinese tallow

    (Sapium sebiferum (Roxb.))

    Wood

    7586    

    7226-7835

     

    Juniper (Juniperus spp.)5

     

    Mixed6

     

    88497

     



    1 Koch, P. 1972. Utilization of Southern Pines. Vol. 1., The Raw Material. USDA For. Serv., Agric. Handb. 420. US Gov. Printing Office, Washington D.C.
    2 Source: Wiley, A. T. and F. G. Manwiller. 1976. Market potential of mesquite as fuel. Forest Products Journal: 26(9): 48-51.
    3 Source: Scheld, H. W. and J. R. Cowles. 1981. Woody biomass potential of the Chinese tallow tree. Economic Botany: 35(4): 391-397.
    4 Source:Chen, Wei; Kalyan Annamalai, R. James Ansley, and Mustafa Mirik. 2012. Elsevier Ltd.: online March, 2012.
    5 Sampling details not listed in source. Assumed to be either ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei), red-berry juniper (Juniperus pinchotii) or a mix.
    6 Mixture of heartwood, sapwood and bark.
    7 Sampling details not listed in source.

     

    Table 2. Heat of combustion (Btu/OD lb.) of twenty-two hardwood species1.

              Species2

              Stem

                Branch

     

    Wood

    Bark

    Wood

    Bark

    Green ash

    7695

    7472

    7727

    7606

    White ash

    8033

    7695

    8013

    7816

    American elm

    7770

    6840

    7857

    6904

    Winged elm

    7917

    7019

    7869

    6889

    Hackberry

    7882

    7147

    7867

    7141

    Hickory

    8183

    7586

    7931

    7259

    Red maple

    7846

    7595

    7829

    7384

    Black oak

    7680

    7642

    7692

    7847

    Blackjack oak

    7739

    7766

    7739

    7907

    Cherrybark oak

    7848

    7582

    7737

    7655

    Laurel oak

    7828

    7897

    7653

    7806

    Northern red oak

    7791

    7879

    7776

    7926

    Post oak

    7889

    7191

    7845

    7728

    Scarlet oak

    7798

    8041

    7673

    7894

    Shumard oak

    7789

    7970

    7745

    7913

    Southern red oak

    7919

    7983

    7839

    7798

    Water oak

    7876

    7930

    7833

    7918

    White oak

    7676

    7328

    7507

    7574

    Sweetbay

    7736

    7822

    7802

    7886

    Sweetgum

    7667

    7200

    7690

    7214

    Black tupelo

    7867

    7788

    7814

    8176

    Yellow-poplar

    7774

    7696

    7811

    7666

     

    1 Source: Manwiller, F. G. 1982. Heat of combustion of wood and bark of twenty-two hardwood species growing on southern pine sites. Unpublished data in Study File FS-SO-3201-1.44, USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, Pineville, LA.
    2 Common names listed are as found in original source, (1) above; botanical names may also be found in this source.
     + Wood Pallets

    Pallets are a standard-sized platform box open on two or four ends on which goods may be stacked. The open ends allow the entry of the blades (forks) of a forklift so that the load can be raised and moved about easily.


    Phytosanitation

    For export, all new and used Non-Manufactured Wood Packing used in pallets, crates or boxes must be:

    1. heat treated to a minimum core temperature of 130° F for at least 30 minutes in a closed chamber or kiln; or
    2. fumigated with an approved chemical (methyl bromide) in accordance with an officially recognized technical specification.

     

    Phytosanitary measures reduce the risk of introduction and/or spread of quarantined pests. Data collected by TFS indicates phytosanitation (heat or fumigation) adds approximately $1 per pallet for treatment, though exporters currently don’t have plans to switch to plastic or steel based shipping products.

     

    The biggest advantage of fumigation is that it can be done anywhere, even after a load is on a pallet. Fumigation should be performed by a licensed fumigator, which can be found at most port cities.

     

    Energy or heat will kill insects when the temperature is increased above 130ºF. The efficiency of heat treatment is based on energy, humidity and air circulation.

     

    Heat Sterilization of Hardwood Pallets and Pallet Materials

    International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPM15)

    USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine, Wood Packaging Materials

    Heating Times for Round and Rectangular Cross Sections of Wood in Steam (FPL-GTR-130)

     + Contact
    Dr. Edward F. Dougal
    Wood Utilization and Marketing Specialist
    PO Box 310
    Lufkin, TX 75902
    936-639-8180 office
    936-639-8185 fax
    edougal@tfs.tamu.edu
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